BERIMBAO - Musical Instruments aboriginess and ethnic

, from Córdoba ARGENTINA - Friday, 01 December 2023
Musical Instruments Crafts, aboriginess and ethnic


BERIMBAO o BIRIMBAO - Musical Instruments Crafts
This instrument also written Berimbau, birimbau or birimbao is an instrument of African origin but became very popular in Brazil, mainly in the vicinity of Bay to accompany the Capoeira, a combination of dance and martial art created by African slaves in Brazil to train in battle with the Portuguese slave traders realized. The berimbao is one of the most basic string instruments that exist, and therein lies much of its magic. It consists of a wooden bow of variable size, a rope made of steel, a gourd that serves as a sounding board, a stone or coin as pressing the string changes its pitch, a stick of bamboo or wood that strike the strings, and a caxixi which is supported by the same hand to the rod and enriches the sound.
Sound sample of the Berimbao Video of the Berimbao
BERIMBAO kaypacha
The Berimbao is an instrument consisting of a flexible rod of wood but the strength biriba which is approximately half a meter and curved like a bow with steel wire attached to its ends, a gourd tied to the lower end that functions as sounding board, a stone or coin to the different tones to change the length of wire cut to a certain height, a bamboo vaqueta vibrating wire hitting; caxixi always accompanied by a small basket filled with seeds. Currently used is the main instrument in capoeira as a stem. There are three berimbaos: Gunga, that tone is what gives most serious violation, which gives more treble tones, and the middle, giving the two tones. The Gunga berimbao is usually commands a stem, that can say who comes and who does not, in what way and speed is going to play, the length of a stem.
History berimbao
The first problem we face is the probable origin of a musical bow in Brazil. The knowledge of indigenous cultures in Brazil before the eighteenth century is almost nonexistent and the writings of the early chroniclers make no mention of a musical bow. That the possibility of its existence before its discovery by the Portuguese in 1500 is almost zero.
With the colonization and growth of large farms in a country so rich, the need for workers was great, that need was fulfilled with the use of slaves. Began to import slaves from Africa at the beginning of the sixteenth century, but unfortunately with the destruction of documents on slavery is not known when the first slaves were taken and that African nations were coming. These slaves had a great impact on the entire Brazilian culture. With this we can conclude that the origin of the African berimbao is introduced by the slaves.
BERIMBAO from Africa
way to play BERIMBAO
way to play BERIMBAO
Knowledge about the musical aspect is limited to the narratives of former travelers and chroniclers We find the following: 1. Battle, Ledislau. Angola. Lisbon, 1889. "Humbo is a string instrument. It usually consists of half a pumpkin, hollow and very dry. They make a bow and tie the pumpkin with a string on a limb, and gluing the instrument to the chest that serves as sound box, make the bow string vibrate by means of a toothpick.
2. Battle, Ledislau. Customs of Angola. Lisbon, 1890. "A negro plays his humbo, a kind of guitar of a single rope in which his body serves as sound box."
3. Carvalho, Enrique Augusto Dias de. Ethnography and traditional history of the towns of Lunda. Lisbon, 1890. "The rucumbo, made up of a rope stretched by a flexible wooden bow, which has in one of the limbs a small pumpkin that serves as a sounding box; The bow is between the body and the left hand, and the different sounds are obtained with the right hand with a wand that cuts the rope at different heights." "The luandas call it violate. They touch it when they walk or when they are resting."
4. Redinha, José. Ethnographic album. Luanda, s.f. p. 85. Contains a design of "a monocordio, lucungo, with a resonance box constituted by a pumpkin."
5. Cascudo, Luis da Cámara. Folklore of Brazil. 1967. He mentions that, according to Albano de Neves e Souza, from Angola, which Cascudo consulted, the typically pastoral instrument, is still in use by Angola to the east coast, and is named hungu om'bolumbumba, depending on the region.
6. Oliveira, Albano Marinho de. Berimbao - The musical bow of capoeira. Salvador, 1958. Describes a musical bow used by the Tongo natives in Africa. "An arch stretched by a wire from end to end. This is intercepted by a perpendicular, called flange, that is linked to a kind of acoustic box. The performers played it in a horizontal position, with the string near the mouth. They dodeaban the rope with the left hand and they hit with a piece of iron with the right hand.

1. Debret, Jean Baptiste. Picturesque and historical trip to Brazil. São Paulo, 1972. (1834-1839). "The urucungo is composed of half a pumpkin adhering to an arc formed by a curved rod with a brass wire, on which it is struck lightly by means of a wand. 2. Pohl, Juan Emanuel. Reise im Innern von Brasilien. Wien, 1832. "Blacks are very diffused from music ... from the sound of a string drawn in a small bow resting on an empty gourd, which gives maximum three tones ..." 3. Rodríguez, Nina. The Africans in Brazil. São Paulo, 1935. Reference is made to what Pereira da Costa says in an article about the introduction of slaves to Pernambuco in 1645. "The marimba formed by two semicircular arches with a wooden key at the base on which they struck with a Cowboy; And the marimbau, instrument similar or equal to the previous one". Rodríguez adds that there is in Bahia that instrument but he heard that they called the rucumbo "instrument of the angoleros, a bow of flexible wood curved by a thick wire that vibrate with the fingers or with a wand. At the bottom has a soundboard, which against the belly is how the vibrations are regulated." 4. Branches. Artur. Black folklore in Brazil. Rio de Janeiro, 1935. "I still have to talk about urucungo, also called gobo, bucumbumba and berimbao de belly, which is the same rucumbo described by Dias de Carvalho, among the lundas."
BERIMBAO in Africa
BERIMBAO in Brasil
The next problem we face is the origin of the name given to it in Brazil (berimbao, gunga, viola). Among the names of the previous narrations there are great similarities, so it is very probable that they represent the same word with some alterations; But how did you change from these names to the present ones? We have the possibility that the change was like this: rucumbo - cumbo - cungo - gungo - gunga. Another possibility is the word of Angola hungu - gungu - gunga. It may also be that Gunga was derived from the word for caxixi, and instead of calling caxixi in that way, berimbao acquired that name: 1. M. Querino speaks of a basket with seeds touched with the right hand, called gong, in its description of a berimbao. 2. Garcia Simoes in a description of a trip to Angola speaks of an instrument similar to the caxixi called gunga. In some descriptions of former travelers such as Gallet, Dias de Carvalho and Garcia Simoes, names such as wire viola, violam, or viola are used to describe what is considered a berimbao. In Renaissance and Baroque viola was the generic Italian name used for all stringed instruments played with a bow. There is an instrument called berimbao or berimbao which consists of a small wire or wood bow with a lamella in the middle. The bow is stopped with the teeth and is dedea in the laminilla; The sound is altered with the lips and tongue serving the mouth as a sound box. He was taken to Brazil from Europe and probably took his name for our berimbao.

The origin of the word caxixi is not known, there is no knowledge of any similar instrument in Africa or among the Brazilian Indians; For this reason we can think that its use was a recent addition that happened only in Brazil; And only with berimbao and candomblé. There are also no reports of travelers in Brazil or Africa describing this instrument, so either it was not used or they did not notice the small basket.

The association of berimbao with capoeira is not known either. The first evidence of the practice of capoeira comes from the early nineteenth century. All the engravings of the whole century show their practice without the berimbao, but played with a drum. In the engravings showing the berimbao, this is used only for sales or to beg for alms. Perhaps the association occurred late in the late nineteenth century. It seems that the use of berimbao disappeared outside Bahia, and at the beginning of this century most of the masters in Recife, Salvador and Rio were Bahians; So there is the possibility that the use of this instrument in capoeira was only in Bahia; And that in places where this association did not occur, capoeira as well as the use of berimbao disappeared after the problems with the police were over. They saved each other from extinction, and were reintroduced fused.

Today that musical instrument is synonymous with Capoeira and a roda is not performed without the presence of this one. According to several scholars who dealt with the subject, berimbao is originally from Africa, existing in several regions of that continent. Like other instruments used in Afro manifestations, it was introduced to Brazil by black slaves. In Capoeira Angola, old masters like Valdemar, Pastinha, Cajiquinha, Caicara and others affirm that the orchestra is composed of three different berimbaus in size. One small (viola), one medium (Gunga) and one large (Berra-Voi). Mestre Bimba, in his Regional Capoeira, only allowed a berimbao that could be gunga or viola, accompanied by two tambourines. One quality of the berimbaos made by Mestre Bimba is that they could not be painted, he always said "berimbao painted to lose the voice". His berimbaos were barely varnished. It should be remembered that what characterizes berimbao as large, medium or small is the size of the tapara. The two tambourines are obligatory in the Rhodes besides the Caxixi that accompany the berimbaos.
The berimbao basically consists of 3 sounds: escreshado, sharp and severe. The sharp firm is accomplished by pressing the stone against the wire and beat him with the stick above the stone, with detached pumpkin abdomen. The grave is produced by striking the wire with no pressure just above the string of the gourd. Pumpkin is also removed from the stomach. Finally the escreshado is weakly pushing the stone against the wire and beat him with the stick above the stone. The pumpkin in this sound is attached to the abdomen. Unlike the other two sounds, this is a dry sound without resonance, it seems like high-pitched sound but poorly executed.
Sounds of Berimbao
Accompanying the berimbao always found caxixi, which is basically 2 ways of playing a while it sticks to the stick and the second is berimbao alone, without the berimbao. Sometimes you can also hit the pumpkin, stick the wire below the cord of the gourd, and all that noise. All these elements are normally used in improvisations, increase or rings of berimbao viola. To avoid the complications of a staff, we will use only one line. A figure above the line mean escreshado top of the line and below severe acute. If the notation rather than circular shape is "x" means that the caxixi playing solo.
If for example we have Sound sample of the berimbao means that we're going to start playing squash with the sharp punch to the abdomen and off we go little by little during the performances that cover the sign. Conversely, if we Sound sample of the berimbao is that the pumpkin will be off and we slowly hitting the abdomen.
We may also encounter something as buscar Sound sample of the berimbao this means that an implementation must play both sounds, in this case a severe and acute. This is done by playing a sound serious and then again without hitting the stick with the stone press the wire into a high-pitched sound.
Curfew angola is one of the basic touches of capoeira. This is used to make, as its name says, yogos of capoeira angola. You have certain conventions which include the type of battery that is used to its full implementation. For a touch of angola battery consists of three berimbaos, two tambourines, a Agogo, a recognized - and recognized a atabaque. The kind of songs for this particular tap are Ladainha and Chulas Corridos sing but also in other touches
Sao Bento Pequenho, also known as "Sao Bento de Angola pequenho" or inverse of Angola, is used for a guided or led Yogo, namely that an advanced student or other individual to play with greater of lesser degree for students teach achieve a particular objective or to practice one or several movements. Some of the particularities of this Yogo, there is no control games, and that the mark berimbao both input and output for yogos. Another of the uses of this touch is to accompany the berimbao Gunga angola in touch, this is done by berimbao meio. During the execution of this touches on the Gunga berimbao usually no songs.
This is the main tap of capoeira Regional today. Capoeira allows the development of this art, faster and more acrobatic. Battery as in capoeira Angola consists of 3 berimbaos, two tambourines, a Agogo, a recognized - and recognized a atabaque and clapping more saturated than for angola. The songs that are sung during the touch and are Corridos Cantigas. During the tap if there is against yogos from the foot of the berimbao and from the stem.
The touch of Samba is implemented in some schools at the end of a round dance known as "Samba de Roda", which combined the customs capoeirísticas and cons of yogos to feature dance called Samba Brazil . This tap is implemented by three barimbaos, two tambourines, Agogo, atabaque, clapping and chorus, and of very rhythmic and upbeat songs.
At a time when capoeira was banned, the capoeira endorse in any way needed little obvious that the police approached, so listening to this touch is understood that some police were prowling the area and was more convenient to stop practicing capoeira and maybe a little better Samba dance or just finish the round at that time. Today, capoeira as an art is no longer forbidden to use this touch was relegated to just one touch you have to know how the general culture of capoeira.
Some say that the touch of Amazona by mestre Bimba was used as the anthem of his school, although this information expand the ....
This touch is a masterpiece and the creation of Mestre Bimba. Mestre Bimba was the creator of Capoeira Regional. This man used his playing for the teaching capoeira. today Sao Bento Grande de Bimba is used for two types of yogos. The first is to make the 8 sequences Bimba, the second is to play what is known as a hard Yogo, or very Mandingo and sometimes even beating well given. The battery to touch this changes dramatically compared to the previous touch as only a touch berimbao and is accompanied with two tambourines and something very important is that the only one who can sing who holds berimbao. The songs you hear this tap are Quadras, the Chulas and Corridos.
This touch is very important because it is used to view yogos virtuous, or two people doing capoeira in an exceptional way. One of the unique features of this touch is that the only sound is the berimbao nor palms nor the rest of the drums sound, let alone sung during these games because all the attention should be placed in yogando who are virtuous.
First was strained arch berimbao. It builds the basis of berimbao on the floor, then half of the arch supports the knee, and on top of berimbao making it firmly with your other hand you take the rope that is supportive to the rope. Doing knee lever sink about half of the club while arching the hand that holds it, while the rope is passed by the upper end and the knotted rope on the same arc. Normally there are three simple knots and tension is calculated without breaking the stick around and making the distance between the middle of the stick and the rope is about 20 cm or "palms" (the distance between the open hand thumb and little finger).
Once the voltage berimbao was introduced at the bottom pumpkin, calculating a distance from a palm of the hand between the base end of the stick and the string of the gourd. The cord runs through the pumpkin and squash string is pressed to the pole berimbao. This way the bow is ready to be executed.
Now to sustain berimbao taken with the left hand, passing the little finger on the string of the gourd. The remaining fingers are attached to the pole except the index finger and thumb as they hold the stone or coin. The stone or coin is so able to touch the stone with the rope and released. The ability for the player to manipulate berimbao is touching the stone and releasing the string while the pumpkin rests on our abdomen and also the remoteness of our body.
The right hand is holding the stick of bamboo to strike on the string, it must be held about half of it only with the fingers thumb, index and middle, in the same way that he holds a pencil. Moreover, with the same hand holding the caxixi half with your fingers, ring and little finger. By striking the string with the stick caxixi must sound. The traditional caxixi always rings, although there are other schools like Nana Vasconcellos caxixi running independently of the coup stick. Berimbao can also run without the use caxixi.
If the stone does not press or currency rope, the stick should strike the string, but very close to the string of the gourd. If the stone is being supported on the rope, then hit the stick on the string must be above the stone, but also a very close distance.
The coup stick can be soft or hard as the rope is steel and not at risk of cuts.
When you stop playing berimbao recommended the pumpkin and remove the slack of the rope to keep the stick tension. Avoid dropping or blows to the pumpkin as it can suffer cracks.
It is advisable to note here are the pictures while listening to recordings of berimbao to shape our sound.
Attention: We currently have Berimbao and its accessories for its execution, you can write us for more information by the section CONTACT, Thank you.